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Shāng Shang Dynasty (c. 1600-1046 BC) / surname Shang
qián front / forward / ahead / first / top (followed by a number) / future / ago / before / BC (e.g. 前293年) / former / formerly
Zhōu surname Zhou / Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BC)
Zhí surname Zhi / Zhi (c. 2000 BC), fifth of the legendary Flame Emperors 炎帝[Yan2 di4] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shen2 nong2] Farmer God
Hàn Han ethnic group / Chinese (language) / the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD)
Xià the Xia or Hsia dynasty c. 2000 BC / Xia of the Sixteen Kingdoms (407-432) / surname Xia
Ke (c. 2000 BC), seventh of the legendary Flame Emperors, 炎帝[Yan2 di4] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shen2 nong2] Farmer God
Míng Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) / surname Ming / Ming (c. 2000 BC), fourth of the legendary Flame Emperors, 炎帝[Yan2 di4] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shen2 nong2] Farmer God
Qín surname Qin / Qin dynasty (221-207 BC) of the first emperor 秦始皇[Qin2 Shi3 huang2] / abbr. for 陝西|陕西[Shan3 xi1]
Wèi surname Wei / vassal state during the Zhou Dynasty (1066-221 BC), located in present day Henan and Hebei Provinces
surname Yi / alternative name for 絳|绛[Jiang4] capital of the Jin State during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-475 BC)
Zhào surname Zhao / one of the seven states during the Warring States Period (476-220 BC) / the Former Zhao 前趙 (304-329) and Later Zhao 後趙 (319-350), states of the Sixteen Kingdoms
Wèi surname Wei / name of vassal state of Zhou dynasty from 661 BC in Shanxi, one of the Seven Hero Warring States / Wei state, founded by Cao Cao 曹操, one of the Three Kingdoms from the fall of the Han / the Wei dynasty 221-265 / Wei prefecture and Wei county at different historical periods
surname Lu / Shandong Province 山東省|山东省[Shan1 dong1 Sheng3] / vassal state during the Zhou Dynasty (1066-221 BC) in modern day Shandong Province
Chén surname Chen / vassal state during the Spring and Autumn Period 770-475 BC / Chen of the Southern dynasties (557-589)
Chǔ surname Chu / abbr. for Hubei 湖北省[Hu2 bei3 Sheng3] and Hunan 湖南省[Hu2 nan2 Sheng3] provinces together / Chinese kingdom during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods (722-221 BC)
Xuē surname Xue / vassal state during the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BC)
surname Ji / family name of the Zhou Dynasty 周代[Zhou1 dai4] (1046-256 BC)
国语 Guó Chinese language (Mandarin), emphasizing its national nature / Chinese as a primary or secondary school subject / Chinese in the context of the Nationalist Government / Guoyu, book of historical narrative c. 10th-5th century BC
Chéng surname Cheng / Cheng (c. 2000 BC), third of the legendary Flame Emperors 炎帝[Yan2 di4] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shen2 nong2] Farmer God
Qi son of Yu the Great 禹[Yu3], reported founder of the Xia Dynasty 夏朝[Xia4 Chao2] (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC)
春秋 Chūn qiū Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) / Spring and Autumn Annals, chronicle of Lu State (722-481 BC)
名家 Míng jiā School of Logicians of the Warring States Period (475-220 BC), also called the School of Names
surname Di / generic name for northern ethnic minorities during the Qin and Han Dynasties (221 BC-220 AD)
农家 Nóng jiā School of Agriculture, school of thought of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC)
战国 Zhàn guó the Warring States period (475-221 BC)
Yáo surname Yao / Yao or Tang Yao (c. 2200 BC), one of Five legendary Emperors 五帝[wu3 di4], second son of Di Ku 帝嚳|帝喾[Di4 Ku4]
纵横 zòng héng lit. warp and weft in weaving; vertically and horizontal / length and breadth / criss-crossed / able to move unhindered / abbr. for 合縱連橫|合纵连横[He2 zong4 Lian2 heng2], School of Diplomacy during the Warring States Period (475-221 BC)
连横 Lián Héng Horizontal Alliance, clique of the School of Diplomacy 縱橫家|纵横家[Zong4 heng2 jia1] during the Warring States Period (425-221 BC)
Shùn Shun (c. 22nd century BC), mythical sage and leader
Zōu surname Zou / vassal state during the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BC) in the southeast of Shandong Province
Ruǎn surname Ruan / small state during the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BC) located in the southeast of modern-day Gansu Province
Li (c. 2000 BC), sixth of the legendary Flame Emperors 炎帝[Yan2 di4] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shen2 nong2] Farmer God, also known as Ai 哀[Ai1]
Yu the Great (c. 21st century BC), mythical leader who tamed the floods / surname Yu
周公 Zhōu gōng Duke of Zhou (11th c. BC), son of King Wen of Zhou 周文王[Zhou1 Wen2 wang2], played an important role as regent in founding the Western Zhou 西周[Xi1 Zhou1], and is also known as the "God of Dreams"
surname Di / variant of 狄[Di2], generic name for northern ethnic minorities during the Qin and Han Dynasties (221 BC-220 AD)
北京人 Běi jīng rén Beijing resident / Peking ape-man, Homo erectus pekinensis (c. 600,000 BC), discovered in 1921 at Zhoukoudian 周口店[Zhou1 kou3 dian4], Beijing
孔子 Kǒng Confucius (551-479 BC), Chinese thinker and social philosopher, also known as 孔夫子[Kong3 fu1 zi3]
孙子 Sūn Sun Tzu, also known as Sun Wu 孫武|孙武[Sun1 Wu3] (c. 500 BC, dates of birth and death uncertain), general, strategist and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period (700-475 BC), believed to be the author of the “Art of War” 孫子兵法|孙子兵法[Sun1 zi3 Bing1 fa3], one of the Seven Military Classics of ancient China 武經七書|武经七书[Wu3 jing1 Qi1 shu1]
黄帝 Huáng the Yellow Emperor, mythological emperor of China, reigned c. 2697-2597 BC
神农 Shén nóng Shennong or Farmer God (c. 2000 BC), first of the legendary Flame Emperors, 炎帝[Yan2 di4] and creator of agriculture
先秦 xiān Qín pre-Qin, Chinese history up to the foundation of the Qin imperial dynasty in 221 BC
公元前 gōng yuán qián BCE (before the Common Era) / BC (before Christ)
霸主 zhǔ a powerful chief of the princes of the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) / overlord / hegemon
卫国 Wèi guó state of Wei (c. 1040-209 BC), vassal of Zhou
诸侯 zhū hóu feudal vassal / feudal princes, esp. the monarchs (dukes or princes) of the several vassal states 諸侯國|诸侯国 of Zhou during Western Zhou and Spring and Autumn periods 11th-5th century BC / subordinate warlord / local official
Jiàng capital of the Jin State during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-475 BC)
西汉 Hàn Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-8 AD), also called 前漢|前汉[Qian2 Han4], Former Han Dynasty
管子 Guǎn Guanzi or Guan Zhong 管仲 (-645 BC), famous politician of Qi 齊國|齐国 of Spring and Autumn period / Guanzi, classical book containing writings of Guan Zhong and his school
乌尔 ěr Ur (Sumerian city c. 4500 BC in modern Iraq)
秦始皇 Qín Shǐ huáng Qin Shihuang (259-210 BC), the first emperor
西施 shī Xishi (c. 450 BC), famous Chinese beauty, foremost of the Four legendary beauties 四大美女[si4 da4 mei3 nu:3], given by King Gou Jian 勾踐|勾践[Gou1 Jian4] of Yue as concubine to King of Wu as part of a successful plan to destroy Wu
庄子 Zhuāng Zhuangzi (369-286 BC), Daoist author
汉代 Hàn dài the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD)
西周 Zhōu Western Zhou (1027-771 BC)
秦朝 Qín cháo Qin Dynasty (221-207 BC)
道家 Dào jiā Daoist School of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC), based on the teachings of Laozi or Lao-tze 老子[Lao3 zi3] (c. 500 BC-) and Zhuangzi 庄子 (369-286 BC)
yáo variant of 堯|尧, legendary emperor Yao, c. 2200 BC / embankment
罗马帝国 Luó guó Roman Empire (27 BC-476 AD)
大运 yùn Mandate of Heaven / the Grand Canal, 1800 km from Beijing to Hangzhou, built starting from 486 BC / usually written 大運河|大运河[Da4 Yun4 he2]
两汉 liǎng Hàn Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD) / refers to the Western Han and Eastern Han
合纵 Zòng Vertical Alliance, clique of the School of Diplomacy 縱橫家|纵横家[Zong4 heng2 jia1] during the Warring States Period (425-221 BC)
Āi Ai (c. 2000 BC), sixth of legendary Flame Emperors 炎帝[Yan2 di4] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shen2 nong2] Farmer God, also known as Li 釐|厘[Li2]
内经 Nèi jīng abbr. for 黃帝內經|黄帝内经[Huang2 di4 Nei4 jing1], The Yellow Emperor's Internal Canon, medical text c. 300 BC
儒家 jiā Confucian school, founded by Confucius 孔子[Kong3 zi3] (551-479 BC) and Mencius 孟子[Meng4 zi3] (c. 372-c. 289 BC)
山海经 Shān hǎi Jīng Classic of Mountain and Sea, probably compiled c. 500 BC-200 BC, contains wide range of geography, mythology, witchcraft, popular customs etc
秦汉 Qín Hàn the Qin (221-207 BC) and Han (206 BC-220 AD) dynasties
汉武帝 Hàn Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty (141-87 BC)
项羽 Xiàng Xiang Yu the Conqueror (232-202 BC), warlord defeated by first Han emperor
春秋战国 Chūn qiū Zhàn guó the Spring and Autumn (770-476 BC) and Warring States (475-221 BC) periods
楚国 Chǔ guó the state of Chu, one of the most important of the small states contending for power in China between 770 and 223 BC, located around present-day Hubei
汉朝 Hàn cháo Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD)
大禹 Yu the Great (c. 21st century BC) mythical leader who tamed the floods
韩信 Hán Xìn Han Xin (-196 BC), famous general of first Han emperor Liu Bang 劉邦|刘邦[Liu2 Bang1]
司马迁 Qiān Sima Qian (145-86 BC), Han Dynasty historian, author of Records of the Grand Historian 史記|史记[Shi3 ji4], known as the father of Chinese historiography
小说家 Xiǎo shuō jiā School of Minor-talks, one of the Hundred Schools of Thought 諸子百家|诸子百家[zhu1 zi3 bai3 jia1] during the Warring States Period (475-221 BC)
新罗 Xīn luó Silla, Korean kingdom 57 BC-935 AD / one of the Korean Three Kingdoms from 1st century AD, defeating its rivals Paikche 百濟|百济[Bai3 ji4] and Koguryo 高句麗|高句丽[Gao1 gou1 li2] around 660 in alliance with Tang China / unified Silla 658-935
青铜器 qīng tóng bronze implement / refers to ancient bronze artifacts, from c. 2,000 BC
刘邦 Liú Bāng Liu Bang (256 or 247-195 BC), bandit leader who became first Han emperor Han Gaozu 漢高祖|汉高祖 (reigned 202-195 BC)
大运河 Yùn the Grand Canal, 1800 km from Beijing to Hangzhou, built starting from 486 BC
尔雅 Ěr "Erya" or "The Ready Guide", first extant Chinese dictionary, c. 3rd century BC, with glossaries on classical texts
李维 wéi Titus Livius or Livy (59 BC-17 AD), Roman historian
秦国 Qín guó the state of Qin, one of the seven states of the Warring States Period (475-220 BC)
资治通鉴 zhì Tōng jiàn A Mirror for the Wise Ruler (or Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government), a vast chronological general history, written by 司馬光|司马光[Si1 ma3 Guang1] Sima Guang (1019-1089) and collaborators during the Northern Song in 1084, covering the period 403 BC-959 AD, 294 scrolls
柏拉图 Plato (c. 427-c. 347 BC), Greek philosopher
周朝 Zhōu cháo Zhou Dynasty / Western Zhou 西周 (1046-771 BC) and Eastern Zhou 東周|东周 (770-221 BC)
楚辞 Chǔ Chu Ci, the Songs of Chu (ancient book of poems, collected during Han but esp. from country of Chu c. 500 BC)
东周 Dōng Zhōu Eastern Zhou (770-221 BC)
伏羲 Fuxi or Fu Hsi, legendary Chinese emperor, trad. 2852-2738 BC, mythical creator of fishing, trapping and writing
墨子 Mozi (c. 470-391 BC), founder of the Mohist School 墨家[Mo4 jia1] of the Warring States Period (475-220 BC)
春秋时代 Chūn qiū Shí dài Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC)
良渚 Liáng zhǔ Liangzhu (c. 3400-2250 BC), neolithic culture of Changjiang delta
黄帝内经 Huáng Nèi jīng The Yellow Emperor's Internal Canon, medical text c. 300 BC
孟子 Mèng Mencius (c. 372-c. 289 BC), Confucian philosopher second only to Confucius / book of the same name, one of the classics of Confucianism
左传 Zuǒ Zhuàn Zuo Zhuan or Tsochuan, Mr Zuo's Annals or Mr Zuo's commentary on 春秋[Chun1 qiu1], early history c. 400 BC attributed to famous blind historian Zuo Qiuming 左丘明[Zuo3 Qiu1 ming2]
老子 Lǎo Laozi or Lao-tze (c. 500 BC), Chinese philosopher, the founder of Taoism / the sacred book of Daoism, 道德經|道德经 by Laozi
荆轲 Jīng Jing Ke (-227 BC), celebrated in verse and fiction as would-be assassin of King Ying Zheng of Qin 秦嬴政 (later the First Emperor 秦始皇)
老君 Lǎo jūn Laozi or Lao-tze (c. 500 BC), Chinese philosopher, the founder of Taoism / the sacred book of Daoism, 道德經|道德经 by Laozi
赵国 Zhào Guó Zhao, one of the seven states during the Warring States Period of Chinese history (475-220 BC)
妲己 Daji (c. 11th century BC), mythical fox spirit and concubine of the last Shang Dynasty Emperor Zhou Xin 紂辛|纣辛[Zhou4 Xin1]


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